Wafer Fabrication Process Overview

Last Updated on Jul.05.2024
Waffer Fabrication

In this post, we explore the semiconductor development process, focusing on the creation of silicon wafers — from raw material to microchip.

Silicon production begins with silica, the main chemical compound of silicon, primarily sourced from quartz, a crystalline form abundant in the Earth’s crust. Initially, raw silicon is melted in a high-temperature electric arc furnace. The molten silicon undergoes purification to remove impurities, ensuring high purity. Once purified, it is carefully poured into a graphite mold to cool and solidify. Controlled crystal growth occurs during cooling, forming a single crystal structure within the ingot. Following solidification, the silicon ingot undergoes annealing, a heat treatment process to relieve internal stresses and improve structural integrity.

Subsequently, the annealed ingot is sliced into thin wafers using diamond saws and meticulously polished to achieve a smooth, flat surface, ready for further processing. These wafers undergo a doping process to introduce impurities into specific regions of the silicon crystal lattice, altering its conductivity and electrical characteristics for various applications.

Although Top Seiko is not directly involved in these initial stages of wafer creation, maintaining high precision ensures excellent quality for subsequent processes.

Stay tuned for more insights into semiconductor manufacturing processes from Top Seiko!

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